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15 Pre-Handwriting Factors Leading to Successful Handwriting in Children

15 prewriting skills needed for handwriting Your Therapy SourceA recent 33 question survey on the pre-handwriting factors needed for successful handwriting was completed in 2015 by 535 occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants (from the USA).   The responses from the OT/COTAs indicated the following:

  1.  95% answered that the ability of a child to copy vertical lines, horizontal lines, circles, squares and triangles was a good predictor of handwriting success.
  2.  98% felt the the ability to imitate and copy an oblique cross (indicates crossing midline) was important for handwriting success.
  3. 77% reported visual perceptual skills were very important for the development of handwriting skills. Sixty eight percent felt that visual motor integration was the most important visual perceptual skills for handwriting success.
  4. 83% felt that being able to stabilize the paper with the non dominant hand was very important for the development of handwriting.
  5. 74% felt that hand dominance was important for handwriting success.
  6. 56% felt that cognitive skills  were important for the development of handwriting.  Attention, praxis and motor learning were deemed the most important cognitive skills.
  7. 73% reported motor planning was important for handwriting success.
  8. 43% felt kinesthesia and proprioception were very important for handwriting success.
  9. 82% reported body scheme was very important for the development of handwriting.
  10. 67% felt the dynamic tripod grasp was the most functional for handwriting success.
  11. 56% felt that an immature scissor skill grasp results in an inefficient pencil grasp.
  12. 55% reported purposeful scribbling is needed for letter formation and letter directionality.
  13. 43% felt that in hand manipulation skills are very important for handwriting success.
  14. 50% reported that bilateral integration skills are very important for the development of handwriting.
  15. Postural control was ranked as the most important initial area of concern followed by proximal joint stability, intrinsic hand strength and the arches of the hand.

Reference:  Shah, Lalitchandra J., et al. “Study of Pre-Handwriting Factors Necessary for Successful Handwriting in Children.” World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering 10.3 (2016): 643-650.  Read the full article here http://www.waset.org/publications/10003772