Feedback Frequency with Children

What do you think is the best feedback frequency with children when learning a motor task?  Previous research with adults indicates that providing feedback 100% of the time when learning a new task is less effective than when less feedback is provided.  In addition, previous research has indicated that children with cerebral palsy benefit from […]


Keyboarding and Motor Learning

Keyboarding is a complex task that requires students to internalize motor sequences in order to become proficient.  Students need to use visual and kinesthetic feedback to locate and utilize the correct keys to produce written work.  Starting with cogntion and vision, motor memory and self-correction, students slowly become efficient at keyboarding.  Keyboarding and motor learning involve […]

Motor Learning Strategy: The Five-Step Approach

Motor Learning Strategy Five Step Approach

Motor Learning Strategy: The Five-Step Approach As pediatric therapists, we constantly utilize motor learning strategies to help children acquire new motor skills.  One motor learning strategy that has been heavily researched is Singer’s Five-Step Approach.  This approach to learning a new motor task consists of the following five steps: Step One – Readying:  The learner adopts […]


Motor Learning in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

Motor Learning in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

Motor Learning in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy Disability and Rehabilitation published research to examine explicit and implicit learning in children with unilateral cerebral palsy.  The study compared the motor learning of children with left and right unilateral cerebral palsy and typically developing children while they shuffled disks toward a target using a prism-adaptation design.  Each […]

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Why Do Children Need Opportunities to Use New Motor Skills They Learn?

During therapy sessions, we frequently break down activities into smaller parts or chunks to make it easier for children to learn new motor or life skills.  As the child progresses with those individual parts of the skill, the child then practices the entire activity as a whole. Sometimes this is done in an isolated environment […]

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Implicit Versus Explicit Motor Learning in Boys with Autism

Research in Developmental Disabilities published an article comparing implicit versus explicit motor learning in 30 boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their age and IQ matched peers.  Each children participated in a serial reaction time task (SRTT).  The children were separated into different groups based on diagnosis and implicit or explicit learning for the […]

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Help Children to Develop Motor Maps of Their Surroundings

Many pediatric occupational and physical therapists work with children who exhibit decreased sensory processing such as decreased body awareness, motor planning and proprioception. These difficulties of sensing where a child is in space can interfere with motor skill development, peer interaction and safety. We are all familiar with therapy sessions that focus on proprioceptive input, […]

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Physical Versus Mental Practice, Motor Learning and Cerebral Palsy

The Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities published research on the effects of physical and mental practice in acquisition, retention, and transfer of a motor skill in 29 males with cerebral palsy.  The participants were assigned to three homogenous groups; physical practice (n = 10), mental practice (n = 10), and control (n = 9). The experimental groups (physical and mental […]

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Do You Use Congruent Feedback?

Congruent feedback is an excellent tool to help children learn and improve motor skills.  Here is how it works –  decide upon one step or motion of the skill that you and the child thinks needs improvement or refinement.  Tell the child exactly what you are looking for during the skill.  It should only be one […]

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Personal Space Journey – Body Awareness Freebie

Here is a freebie page from Personal Space Journey which is a collection of activities to teach children about maintaining personal space.  You can download the body cards at Here are some suggestions to use the cards for: 1.  Musical Body Poses:  Scatter the cards around the room.  Move to music.  Turn the music off. […]